PT Neo Kosmetika Industri

Jasa Maklon Kosmetik

And work out Environmental Inferences out of Human body Bulk and Heat

And work out Environmental Inferences out of Human body Bulk and Heat

The rate at which organisms process energy and materials determines how fast they grow and reproduce, how long they live, and how rapidly they move through space. Thus it is not surprising that a number of key ecological traits depend on body mass and temperature. For example, John Damuth hypothesized that the maximumimal population abundance (or carrying capacity, large K) that a species can achieve is determined by how much energy is available (Ecomplete) and how much energy is used by each private (Eindividual), so that Etotal is proportional to KEindividual. Because Eindividual is proportional to body mass raised to an exponent b (Mb where b ? 3/4), then Etotal is proportional to KM 3/4 , and K is proportional to EtotalM -3/4 .

This relationship, called the energy equivalence rule, tells you two things: 1. mice can reach higher abundances than elephants and 2. if the populations of elephants and mice are at their carrying capacity, these populations will use the same amount of energy (KEindividual is proportional M -3/4 + 3/4 = M 0 ). The relationship works well when a large number of species, including a very broad range of body sizes from all over the globe, are plotted together, probably because a sufficiently large number of species close to their carrying capacity are represented.

While the, at the a given webpages, not totally all species might possibly be within carrying capacity, the brand new abundance so you’re able to body bulk matchmaking will have a lot of spread out, and its own exponent are not -3/cuatro

Another important ecological trait that is influenced by body size and temperature is rmax, the intrinsic rate of population increase (i.e., the rate at which populations can grow in the absence of food or space limitations). We have known for a very long time that populations of small animals can grow faster than those of large ones. More precisely, ecologists found that rmax is proportional to M -b . In 1974, Tom Fenchel conjectured that the value of rmax would be set by the organism’s mass-specific metabolic rate (i.e., the ratio of metabolic rate to body mass), and hence that b should be about -0.25. In 2004, Vance Savage and his collaborators hypothesized that rmax would depend on both body mass and temperature. Both conjectures proved to be roughly correct (Figure 5). Both the maximal rates at which populations can grow and their potential carrying capacity are influenced by body size and temperature. Ecologists have documented similar effects for processes as disparate in scale as molecules evolving, and the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems. Temperature and size affect how organisms work because organisms cannot break the limits imposed on them by physics and chemistry. The physical and chemical principles that rule the transfer of energy and materials within and among organisms generate order in the riotous, and sometimes seemingly overwhelming, complexity of ecological systems.

Records and you may Demanded Understanding

Frazier, Meters., Huey, Roentgen. B. mais aussi al. Thermodynamics constrains the newest development out of bug populace progress costs: “hotter is better”. American Naturalist 168, 512–520 (2006).

Gillooly, J. F., Brownish, J. H. mais aussi al. Ramifications of proportions and you may temperatures with the metabolic process. Research 293, 2248–2251 (2001).

When you look at the Rates 2 and you may step three, circumstances out-of ten along the axes try spaced because of the exact same distance: 100 kilogram is as away from ten kg because 10 kilogram try from a single kg. And therefore, we find a large number of features of dogs and you can plants you to attention ecologists vary because the power qualities off looks bulk. The research of them dating is called allometry as well as the equations you to definitely connect an enthusiastic organism’s ability with system size have been called allometric equations (from the Greek sources allo for example “other” and you will meter for example “measure”). Whenever bacteria obey the chief regarding geometric resemblance explained a lot more than, upcoming i consider the relationship between a trait and the entire body mass once the isometric. Like, the connection between area and body mass is isometric.

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